2560 Leon Guinto Street

Singalong, Malate, Manila

Philippines

632-5677686

632-5597593

admissions-2

ADMISSIONS

Fine Arts and Interior Design Department

The Department began in the school year 1989-1990 as the Department of Art Appreciation and Interior Design. Today, the Department of Fine Arts and Interior Design (DFAID) is a unified unit tasked to service curricula for the Bachelor of Fine Arts and Bachelor of Science in Interior Design Programs. The Department also services other units requiring mentor competencies for Art Appreciation Courses. DFAID’s qualified mentors in arts and design cross-over to other programs and courses to facilitate student learner-centered strategies through Studio-based learning. It maintains seven studios for studio arts and interior design, a photography laboratory, and art & design workshop areas. The Department continues to internalize and grow with the Benedictine Tradition of Prayer and Work (Ora et Labora). It has produced Scholastican graduate artists and designers serving industries locally and abroad. While others participate in the academe.

Specific Objectives

• To strategize learner-centered competencies for verifiable student skills development at all year level standings. Monitor strengths and weaknesses of learner’s levels of performance for quality intervention by art/design mentor.

• To strengthen & instill profundity of learners’ scholarship for art or design research and application needed for content and structural representation or board presentation of art/design works.

• To intensify program application by developing art & design competencies of student artist/ design learners through studio-based learning.

• To prepare learners’ dexterity for careers and allied fields as practicing artists/designers.

• To attain proficiency for Board Exam as required for Interior Designers.

• To allow learners to experience technological use through actual applications for aesthetic and design productions.

• To provide learners a professional sharing experience with art/design mentors through learning conversation and mentor-mentee settings. These include mentoring, critique and value judgment of works.

• To set learning deeply rooted with production ethics and morality to discourage image or work plagiarism, and encourage honesty and integrity of medium.

• To prepare learners for life-long learning in the Arts and Design. Participate where ever and whenever it is warranted to express, create and present art/design works for human needs and requirement for the purpose of advancing our society.

Contact Us

Department of Fine Arts and Interior Design
Arts & Sciences Faculty Room 
2nd Floor Mechtilde Bldg.
Landline:
 (632) 567-7686 (locals 2230)

St. Scholastica’s College Manila
2560 Leon Guinto Street, 

Malate, Metro Manila 
PHILIPPINES 1004

Bachelor in Fine Arts
major in Advertising Design 
(BFAADVdes)

Bachelor in Fine Arts 
major in Visual Arts and Design 
(BFAVAD)

The Bachelor of Fine Arts in Visual Communication/Advertising Design program is a learner-centered and studio-based degree program. It embraces liberal arts education with traditional studio-based courses beginning with the fundamentals of Fine Arts. These include freehand drawing, figure drawing, color, design and advances at higher levels that include the norms, product, procedures, advertising campaigns, ethical standards in advance and other related fields of visual communications using computer technologies. It also includes several lecture courses for the cognitive and reflective competencies of students. The final level courses are directed towards advertising campaign, articulated in both written thesis and visual presentation.  

The Bachelor of Fine Arts major in Visual Arts and Design (BFAVAD) is a studio-based degree Program that enables students to acquire competencies and knowledge in courses like drawing, figure drawing, design and color, composition, and stylistic applications. It is a fall-back Program for Fine Arts students by providing them the opportunity to cross over to other areas like visual communication and fashion design.  The Program also provides basic computer graphics courses that allow students to find solutions to design problems using standard computer technologies.  It requires the completion of a thesis in an exhibition and orally-defended written thesis.

Bachelor of Science in Interior Design 
(BSID)

The Bachelor of Science in Interior Design program is a learner-centered program. It embraces liberal arts education with studio skills development courses and CHED required courses specifically for the Interior Design curriculum. The program with traditional studio courses aimed to develop design skills as basic necessary for stepping forward to high level courses. Such competencies include drawing, drafting, rendering and presentations. Advance courses include clusters in designing competencies from single unit space such as residences to more elaborate and complex corporate requirements such as hotels, institutions and similar structures.

Other allied courses help integrate Interior Design (ID) courses for well-rounded design concepts in both standard and computer-based execution and presentation. Summarily at senior’s level learners are expected to synthesize their acquired knowledge from previous in an articulated written thesis of design project. It also includes final presentation of work in an exhibition. The program also sets learners to basic areas for licensure to cognitively provide knowledge and prepare them for ID licensure examination.

A Learning Strategy for Studio Courses

Studio–based Learning is not a new approach in Arts and Design. What appears to be ‘new’ is how traditional approaches in learning and teaching are identified and qualified for better understanding of learners and mentors alike. It is a reference to many in arts and design to perceive the processes of learning and strategies that in general are applied by mentors for so many, many years.

This understanding is focused on the following:

     1. The Studio

     2. The Mentor and

     3. Knowledge and Level

1. The Studio: The Structure and Psychological Setting

We have to understand what it is that we need to know about The Studio . First, learners are confronted with a course structure that requires a very different role for students than traditional forms of instruction usually demand. Second, we can assume that the first experience of a new learning environment sets the stage for remaining learning projects within that particular environment and influences strongly how students will approach more advanced courses in the future. Therefore, it seems a crucial task to analyze how well the existing learning environment supports the processes of adaptation and enculturation of these new participants in The Studio. (Fiedler, 1999)

Among others, The Studio is the Arts and Design counter-part for a regular or standard classroom . While it is a “classroom” its physical setting is totally different from physical settings of classrooms. One is immediately transported, upon entering an art and design studio, to a dimension totally indifferent to our normal experience for a learning space. It instantaneously bring us to the notion that the art and design studio is an arena for some sort of production, personal conversation, movement and others.

structure

setting

furniture

lights

models/props

The Studio environment offers a great and almost overwhelming variety of potential resources for the personal learning projects of the (artist/designer) learners. It is the responsibility of the individual learner to select appropriate resources and to gradually design her or his own “curriculum.” {Fiedler, 1999) Its furniture- donkey stools, easels and drawing boards- all help direct our understanding to this. These physical structure and features of the art-studio is our first psychological setting we have to adjust with. It invites a paradigm shift, a new tabula rasa , and instill in us a different decorum. The success of artistic/design productivity will depend on this environment. Every object, every space, light, its lavatory, disposal container and platform facilitate a level learning process in a manner experienced by artist/designer students as they go through every stage of artistic or design production. It is here that artist/design- learners go through the activities that are learner-centered. The process of selectivity, adding-up, elimination and relating resources empowers learners to carry out their learning styles that help them to focus and attain their goals and purposes effectively and comfortably. Learners have to consider their body postures and the ergonometric space it would need. Proximity or distance, light intensity are several concerns that may result to their personal requirement for conic register/perception of objects set before them. These are but only a few that may be required by the art/design-students. Hence, “appropriate resources” would mean the artist/designer-student personal conditioned requirement that allows each of them to initiate, go through a process/stages and terminate a project activity.

Perhaps, we should consider what Fiedler has to say about the studio.

The design of The Studio is based on a “constructivist perspective”
on learning that is largely shared among the faculty of the department
Rieber et al. (1999) characterize the core ideas of this perspective as:
“ 1) learning is an active process in which meaning is constructed by each
individual; 2) learning is a social activity founded on a collaboration and
mutual respect of different viewpoints; 3) learning is embedded in the in
the building of artifacts that are shared and critiqued by one’s peers.”

In summary, The Studio , its structure, setting, furniture, lights and artifacts of models and props must harmonize with orcontribute significantly with the teaching and learning styles of both Art Mentor and Artists-learners. The Studio is then not only a learning space and locale but a strategic teaching instrumen t for knowledge and upgrading of processing levels ofthe artist/designer learners.

2. The Mentor

The Mentor, in general, is an Artist and/or Designer. The Mentor is an artist/designer whose work you admire. An artist/designer whose movement, medium is similar to the works you may want to create in the studio. Deciding which artist/designer to choose to be your Mentor is no easy task. (http://members.aol/co,/humger7/amentor.htm) Qualified in terms of academic preparation and other requirements by Art Institutions. S/he delivers short talks about a particular problem or lesson for artist/designer-learners to internalize before art/design production, but more so, a Studio facilitator. S/he is the major reference material for time honored art traditions, learning conversation, critiquing and the assessor for studio course activities and output.

The Mentor enjoys the freedom to determine and to put to work the studio course description and coverage in a manner s/he sees appropriate and useful. The Mentor sees fit with a studio course description to provide particular lessons and learning strategies her/his experience dictate. This includes the determination of the number of art/design production projects and the allocation for a reasonable time to finish them.

The Mentor’s studio locomotion is a specific body movement to get through and between and around the artist/design-learners positions to monitor progress of production. In addition, after the selection of models and props s/he is made to apply a self-imposed requirement to move forward, backward, sideways and around studio artifacts and even to far ends of the studio to assess its appropriate lighting, visual clarity, composition and overall presentation.

education of perception

time honored traditions

mentoring/tutoring

criticism

Furthermore, s/he is responsible for studio management and decorum that presupposes a certain level of “trust” among the (studio) members. Values of competitiveness that are deeply ingrained in traditional settings (that) hinder (artist/design)-learners to engage in free exchange of opinions with great comfort (are identified and explained by the Mentor.) (This is to allow artist/design-learners to create an attitude were one) can emotionally distance themselves from their (art projects) and consider external feedback as a valuable and somehow necessary source of information (to enable them) to benefit from this procedure. (Fiedler, 1999)

Education of Perception

What is it that The Studio and Art/Design Mentor provide artist/design-learners? They provide what traditional instruction does not. This is the education of perception critical and very significant in all studio activities and art/design production projects. It should be noted that teachers of art history, criticism, and aesthetics need a theory of perception as much as (Mentors) of studio courses. That is because perceptual modes are not given by nature; nor are they fixed forever. The laws of optics do not change, and the physiology of perception does not change, but viewers change in the way they “pay attention” to the deliverances of their senses. The (Mentor’s) goal of “educating the senses” is really a metaphor forperceptual education . (Feldman, 1996)

Perception as Seeing

Since Studio courses fall under a general category of visuality it is imperative what vision is all about. It is about the perception of seeing. The eye can only be sharply focused for one viewing distance at a time. Fixating and focusing on objects via eye movements and accommodation in mechanisms are, of course, only the initial, preparatory steps in the visual process. There remains the main task of detecting and discriminating all the visual complex information that the objects can present. Detecting and discriminating patterns are visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Visual acuity is defined technically as the highest spatial frequency you can detect. Good visual acuity permits you to identify small or far-away objects or object parts, read fine print, and the like. Contrast sensitivity refers to your capacity for discriminating differences in light intensity (light-dark differences). (Flavell, 1985)

Visual perception is the first and main faculty, among others, in the Studio. Understanding perception of seeing lead us how we capture images and relationships of these among objects and onto us. It is here that we are interpreters of images set before us. They are deeply rooted mimicry and by- and-large our sociality. For this reason, seeing must be meta-seeing and needs nourishment and coaching. This is our education of perception. It provides artist-learners a seeing through, learning through and knowledge through. It is very significant in ordering our knowledge and levels of processing information that art production require. It helps in metacognition and the self. When introduced it calls for a paradigm shift and becomes a learning style characterized by seeing, introspection and application of tropes.

Feldman has this to state;

We arrive, then, at a provisional definition of “knowledge-
through” art: it is a type of insight based on encountering the
embodied meaning of a particular object, place, process, or
event. This encounter has cognitive and educational significance
for two reasons. First, the meanings of the artwork has an
reference to facts which do not depend on our personal preferences
or biases: they can be confirmed by others. Second, the
significance of the work does not yield itself freely: it has to
elicited, and that calls for study or intellectual exertion. What
we learn is contingent on (1) the information carried in the
deep structure of the work; and (2) the quality of effort expended
by the learner (guided, our hopes, by a good (Art Mentor).

Knowing through art or design is education of perception. It is a deviation of seeing perception towards metaphoricity of objects and ideas. It is where relationship through tropology that we express affectively and cognitively our communications in art. All works of art are created and experienced in unique social, cultural and historical contexts. The Fine Arts, in all intent and reasons, reflect a human need to understand the world. The Fine Arts are used to express and communicate experiences, thoughts and feelings and to design objects and events which meet personal and social needs. (www.bced.gov.ca, 1995) This is our humanity embedded as meanings in works.

Time Honored Traditions

By Time Honored Traditions we refer to the artist’s practices that were handed down by artist/designer predecessors. These traditions, upon investigation, lead us to the notion that they were created to educate our perception.

It include the painter’s “rule of thumb” for perception optical measurement. With a full arm stretched and thumb up, the artist, with one eye open projects and imaginary linear projection ray to the upper thumb in line with the uppermost section of an object under study. The length of the object is measured along the lower parts of the thumb against the lower section of the object. With this the artist can optically measure object dimension. When the thumb is set sideways a comparison is made against object height with object width. This is repeated several times until an approximate optical measurement and proportion is perceived. This process is done for other objects as well particularly if such are clustered. The rule of thumb when modified applies to other objects other than the thumb to include the brush, pencil and a hard edge.

The camera obscura began as a dark room with a pinhole in one of its walls. When light rays entered an inverted image it is projected on opposite wall. As this developed, artists modified it by setting small rooms or boxes with pinhole on one face and the inverted projected image on the opposite face. The image projected was used as referent-image of the model in front of the artist. It is to promote a series of “systems” and “vision-training aids” for instruction, it allowed a student to view the original subject and the painting of it side-by-side to compare tone and composition. (J. & B. Wilgus, 2004) Today, the camera obscura translates to an imaginary glass plane visualized between model and artist. It is an invisible wall with imaginary grids for the artist to see the model in quadrants. Both the painter’s thumb and camera obscura are used in mimicry of representation.

For composing, the viewfinder for perception size-up and space selectivity is used. This is done by extending both arms with the thumbs and index fingers of both hands creating the letter L and are set one on top of the other. Here index fingers meet the thumbs to create a rectangular frame similar to the camera viewfinder. It is used to scan wide areas for representation and allows the artist to compositional locate sites. It frames the representation in similar and analogous relationship to the area of the canvas or paper.

The reverse perception by rear mirror ontic presentation for analysis. Here a finished work is place in front of a mirror. The reflected reverse image is then analyzed against the real work image. Comparison of both reflected image and real image for harmony and unity at all angles is then studied. When one image rejects harmony with the other image then the integrity of composition is questioned and solutions are made.

Other methods include eye squirting for light perception separation, Pythagorian geometry for analytic composition and sectioning for focusing subjects on foregrounds, the LeBrunian convention for portraiture, Titian’s green paint priming for portraiture and figure painting, and so on.

Furthermore, for acts of visualization examples may include: technique rendering for mind recall in representation for familiarization, characteristics, spacing and usage; exercises for clustering (visual brainstorming) and mapping (organizing ideas in words, symbols or both), and creating imagery as metaphoric tropes for fixed or interactive or expressive communication.

These traditions are techniques for the education perception and are useful in so many ways. It is part of artistic teaching strategy and learning for application by both artists and studio learners.

Mentoring/Tutoring

Learning Conversation can provide valuable support for learners who are just beginning to develop their skills for self-organized learning.(Fiedler, 1999) Here we identify mentoring/tutoring. Mentoring/tutoring is a dialogue between Art Mentor and Artist/Design-learner . It is very relative and individualized. It is a conversation directed by the Art/Design Mentor to assess levels of performance for art or design production procedures and stages for completion of Artist/designer-learner’s projects. This conversation allows artist/designer-learners to learn the specifics of a problem and apply solution.Mentoring/Tutoring is interventionism to provide alternative procedures and solutions to artist-learners.

Criticism

Critiquing is an assessment of an art or design project. It takes as lot of skills to examine a project. It is strategized in stages: 1. Identifying and describing, 2. Analyzing, 3. Interpreting, and 4) Making Comparative Judgment. (http://instructional.calstatela.edu/laa/aesthetics__2B.html).

This is usually done when the project is in progress, just before completion of a project and when the work is done. This compulsory (criticism) require students to obtain critical feedback on their prototyped (projects) or design outlines. This valuable source of information does allow the (artist/designer)-learners to monitor where they are in their learning and (project) process and what is left to do in the remaining time. (At this stage) emerging needs or problems might require the adjustment of the chosen learning strategy, elements of the tool contract, and time planning. (Fiedler, 1999) It involves descriptive and signification discourse in a dialogue with the artist/designer-learner. Critiquing, in differing situations, is generally a learning conversation or as assessment of a project towards a final score point. This particular stage is done when the work is done and submitted. In whatever case, it is both a learning and teaching strategy even after work is done and submitted. It helps the artist/designer-learner assess her/his output through answers in response to questions posed by the Art Mentor. Criticism, therefore, at the end is value-judgment.

For value-judgment to be pass on to a project it would take the Mentor his thorough artistic/design experience. Such experience cover intensive and extensive art/design production in recent past or at current levels, in depth knowledge of art/design theory, art/design philosophy and history of art and design as partial to his academic preparation within or above Arts or Design. Further, it embraces the knowledge of an unwritten art ethics and morals involving originals against forgeries, copies or appropriations, and morality involving technical integrity of material medium precluded in craft, professional ethics and licensure. Bad or dishonest craft is not only a matter of working with inferior materials, or by exercising in visual sleight-of-hand. Bad craft means making a dishonest artistic statement for someone else to believe, to possess, and to cherish. (Feldman, 1996) All these make up the conditions to pass on value-judgment or criticism.

3. Knowledge and Levels

These areas interest us most. We are rooted with Marzano’s “New Taxonomy.” Our interest lies not in competition with The Studio and The Art/Design Mentor but rather with Marzano’s identification of domains of knowledge and its levels of processing. For here, the psychomotor skills crucial to art production is leveled with other domains of information and mental process. It shifts the traditional perception of psychomotor skills as merely manual to a unity with the other domains. Being so, this skill, artistic psychomotor skills for studio arts-based learning is not merely learning to master medium and manipulate thereafter. It is knowledge itself! The Studio, therefore, is the locale where knowledge is identified with The Art/Design Mentor locating and by coaching artist-learners to climb up the level ladders for processing. All together, The Studio, The Art Mentor and Objectivity for Knowledge and Levels come as a harmonious unity of our three-fold variables in one learning artistic/designing strategy.

information

mental process

psychomotor skills

levels of processing

Point of Contact

Initiating Studio Arts-based Learning as learning strategy for studio courses.. With sets A & B currently applied. Set C is the new order needed to enrich the strategy.

The Model

STUDIO -based LEARNING (SbL)

The Studios-based Learning is a learner-centered artistic/designing strategy for Studio courses in Fine Arts, Interior Design and Allied Fields. It is focused on the studio, the art mentor by educating artist-learner’s perception through time-honored traditions of technique, conversational learning (mentoring/tutoring/criticism) set in contemporary innovative strategies for performance-based artistic production and assessment. It includes sharpening knowledge critically through art and design by objective level processing reference for facts, embodied meanings or metaphor and the relationships of objects, places, processes and events as representation, concept, affective expression and communication signification as knowledge-manifest of humanity deeply set in art/design projects.

SbL is a learner-centered learning strategy that allows artist/designer-learners to learn to learn, train skills and acquire knowledge based on their learning styles for every particular studio activity and problem. It provides the artist/design-learners to put into form their information and mental processing for representation content and psychomotor technical know-how for artistic or style rendering and presentation. Artist-learners are allowed the freedom for experimentation, exploration, discovery and synthesis without intervention from art mentors except when problem areas have been detected and identified. Here, art mentors facilitate learning through solution options and alternatives.

Our Model for Studio-based Learning includes the following parts:

A. THE INTRODUCTION

This is the “kick-off” event. It is a studio orientation provided by the Mentor for a studio course offering. It will cover introducing a Course Description and Syllabus. It will benchmark that The Studio is the Arts/Design foremost instrument for learning. That The Studio is a learning space and very crucial to the understanding and needs for learning studio courses. The Art Mentor will present the problem idea and how, by possible ways, the problem may be solved therein. It involves a short talk about nature of the problem that will be encountered (a mimicry or an act of visualization involving images in the mind’s eye or an inter-active), doing visual presentation or examples, board explanation, how to educate perception and expected project outcome. This is where time honored-tradition techniques may be incorporated as tools for “seeing” and “doing.”

B. LEARNING CONTRACTS (LC)

Mentors, in general, set dates for submission of art/design projects created by Artist/Design-Learners. For this reason, and by application, artist/design-learners are obligated to submit their art/design projects on time for assessment and score marking. Experience dictate that this is a one-way “agreement.” It is based on the authority and artistic/design license of mentors to predict learners’ aptitude, in general, to be done and meet deadlines for submission. Furthermore, it is also a common knowledge that some learners trying to beat a deadline submit their works far from or a little less than their usual performance levels. Perhaps we should always recall the dictum that “we don’t teach them drawing but how to draw!”

A Learning Contract provides artist-learners to determine submission of art projects according to their potentials and aptitudes. It sets the minds that two parties are in agreement, a meeting of the minds, of something that is to be done and submitted. A Learning Contract should, however, be reasonable and should not put aside nor be too far-off with the mentors calculated time frame for each art project. A LC, in effect, allows a negotiated exact date of submission agreeable to both Art Mentor and Artist-learner. Since a contract must be treated with honor, a learner’s failure to comply with what has been indicated in the contract summarily allows the mentor to pass on a score mark without further consideration except for very reasonable situations or events. The Learning Contract may take a written or verbal agreement provided it is transparent and known to each artist-learner.

C. MENTORING (Mentor-Mentee)

Mentoring is a time-honored tutorial teaching strategy practice for knowledge transference to take place in The Studio. It is a Learning Conversation intervention approach for the purpose of engaging learners on what to do for particular problematic areas. This is conducted individually by Mentors while artist/design-learners are in progress in art project production. It is very subjective and is based on learners’ production performance, knowledge and processing levels. Technique inputs, relational spatial unity, elemental harmony, rendering options, verifiability of concept, expression & communication are identified & discussed, in conversation, for the learners to consider in continuing application rendering and work sign meaningfulness.

Mentoring does not involve value-judgment of work. It is a teaching style specific to a particular learner and problem. Since studio learning involves quite a number of learners with variable skills, cognitive aptitude and learning styles the possibility to lateralized a studio class is not possible. Hence, mentoring takes an active, positive and effective role as a teaching strategy for art.

D. CRITICISM

Criticism is another time-honored practice for putting together one’s thoughts about a work of art. It is identifying and descriptive, analyzing, interpreting and value-judgment for project merits, shortcomings and failures. This is generally done during progress or after a work has been submitted for assessment. It is in assessing that one is led to critiquing.

Critiquing is value-judgment. It provides the arena and basis for score marks. It intends to determine whether the work is a success, functioning and meaningful. It allows verification of its elemental fundamentals, sign and meaning.

E. STUDIO MEETINGS

Studio-based Learning requires compulsory studio meetings. This meetings follow Learning Contract agreement set for number of meetings for each project. A meeting set to introduce a new lesson and art production project is not a negotiated meeting but a required compulsory meeting set by the Art Mentor. It is upon the determination of the Art Mentor that an Artist-learner may be freed from this compulsory meetings. This situation applies particularly when the latter is done with the lesson requirements and when the project was submitted earlier than that stipulated in the Learning Contract.

F. PORTFOLIO AND ASSESSMENT LEVEL

A portfolio is a collection of work that represents artist/design-learners’ progress. Therefore, it is important that a final portfolio assessment represent this progress, not simply the best of artist-learners’ work. To effectively achieve this, criteria can be set for evaluating a portfolio in relation to the prescribed learning outcomes.

Since Mentors may prescribe portfolio not in all studio courses s/he handles it becomes imperative for the Department to require one at program end or before graduation. Art/design projects in the portfolio should reflect a summary of several, if not all, studio courses artist/design-learners took for the program. The contents of the Art/design Portfolio shall not be limited and presentation shall be conducted during the oral defense of art or design thesis. This will allow mentors present for a particular day and schedule to look into, ask questions and listen to answers from artist/design-learners.

The suggested Portfolio Assessment Tool include categories of artist/design-learners performance subjected to numerical levels of performance. These categories are indicators of solicited areas of knowledge, skills and perspective.

Information, mental process and psychomotor skills are domain of knowledge in Marzano’s “New Taxonomy.” These domains are basic to artist-learners learning capacity. They can be pinpointed in art projects in such terms as: theme, signification, syntheses of concepts and ideas; to include visualization; and general use hand or equipment dexterity objectively evaluated without crossing over to techniques despite relatedness. Techniques to indicate handling of ideas in/or rendering and application of medium. Craft implies its adherence to art quality and morality. Design as to the elemental foundation and principles of harmony and unity of projects. Overall level as an integration of all the above.

The numeric levels of performance are benchmark in bold figures as predetermined set to assess these categories at a particular level. It predetermines performance levels according to expectations at particular year levels and subjected to collective mentors assessment for observable verification.

WORKS CITED:

Central Tendency. (Feb. 20, 2005). www.en.wikipedias.org
Criticism. (March 2, 2005). http://coe.west.asu.edu
Edwards, Betty. (1999). The new drawing with the right side of the brain. NY: Penguin Putman, Inc.
Feldman, Edmund, B. (1996). Philosophy of art education. N.J.: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Fiedler, Sebastian, H.D. (1999). The studio experience: challenges and
opportunities for self-organized learning. http://itech1.coe.uga.edu/ studio/fiedler.html
Flavell, John, H. (1985). Cognitive development. NJ : Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Fuller, Edmund. (1968) Vasari’s lives of the painters, sculptors and architects. NY: Dell Publishing Co., Inc.
Gardner, Howard. (1985). Frames of Mind. NY : Basic Books.
Learning About Art Criticism. (March 1, 2005) 
http://instructional1.cabstatecla .edu/aesthetics2_B.html.
Marzano, Robert, J. (2001) Designing a new taxonomy of educational objectives.
CA: Corwin Press, Inc.
Reynolds, Sir Joshua. (1769). Discourse in fine arts. http://www.propylean.org/Reynolds.html
Rieber, L. , Ore, M., and King, J. (1999). Handbook for the studio experience.
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Venn Diagrams. (Feb. 20, 2005). 
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What is An Art Mentor? (Feb. 28, 2005) http://members.aol/.com/hungar7/amentor.htm.
Wilgus, Jack and Beverly. (2004). (Jan. 15, 2005) The magic mirror of life:
an appreciation of the camera obscura. http://brightbytes.com/cosite/
vermeer.htlm.



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